Trevor Stone’s Research

Trevor Stone has a wide range of experience in biomedical research, with a strong emphasis on the understanding of basic physiological principles underlying disease, the sites and mechanisms of action of drugs used to treat human disorders and the development of new approaches to treatments. His own research has included in vitro and in vivo studies ranging from cell cultures to clinical collaborations.

Metrics

At 1 January 2024, Trevor Stone had published 449 full research papers in peer-reviewed journals, and 13 books. His Google H-factor score is 75, with approximately 24,000 citations to his work.

ORC ID ID is:- 0000-0002-5532-0031

Recent Publications

Stone TW (2020) Dependence and Guidance Receptors – DCC and neogenin – in partial EMT and the actions of serine proteases. Front. Oncology 10, art 94. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2020.00094

Huang Y-S, Ogbechi J., Clanchy F., Williams, RO, Stone TW. (2020) Kynurenine metabolites in peripheral disorders and neuroinflammation. Front. Immunol. 11,  art.388 doi: doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00388

Stone TW (2020) Does kynurenic acid act on nicotinic receptors? An assessment of the evidence. J. Neurochem. 152, 627-649. Doi:  1111/jnc.14907

Huang YS,Tseng WY, Clanchy F, Topping LM, Ogbechi J, McNamee K, Perocheau D, Chiang NY, Ericsson P, Sundstedt   A, Xue Z, Salford LG, Sjögren HO, Stone TW, Lin HH, Luo SF, Williams RO (2021) Pharmacological   modulation of T cell immunity results in long-term remission of autoimmune arthritis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA  118 (19) e2100939118   doi: 10.1073/pnas.2100939118.

Stone TW  (2021) Relationships and interactions between ionotropic glutamate receptors and nicotinic receptors in the CNS. Neuroscience (ForeFront Review) 468, 321-365. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.06.007.

Clanchy FIL, Huang I-S, Ogbechi J, Darlington LG, Williams RO, Stone TW (2022) Induction of IDO1 and kynurenine by serine proteases subtilisin, Prostate Specific Antigen, CD26/DPP4 and HtrA: a new mode of immunosuppression? Front. Immunol. 13, Art. 832989. Doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.832989.

Clanchy FIL, Borghese F, Bystrom J, Attila B, Penn H, Taylor PC, Stone TW, Mageed RA, Williams RO. (2022) Disease status in human and experimental arthritis, and response to TNF blockade, is associated with MHC class II invariant chain (CD74) isoform expression. J. Autoimmunity 128, art.102810. doi:10.1016/j.aut.2021.102597.

Ogbechi J., Huang Y-S, Clanchy FIL, Pantazi E, Topping LM, Darlington LG, Williams RO, Stone TW. (2022) Modulation of immune cell function, IDO expression and kynurenine production by the quorum sensor 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS). Front. Immunol. Doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1001956.

Stone TW, Clanchy FIL, Huang Y-S, Chiang NY, Darlington LG, Williams RO. (2022) An integrated cytokine and kynurenine network as the basis of neuroimmune communication. Front. Neurosci. 16:1002004. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2022.1002004.

Stone TW, Williams RO (2023)  Modulation of T cells by tryptophan metabolites in the kynurenine pathway. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 44,  442 – 456.  doi:10.1016/j.tips.2023.04.006.

Stone TW, Williams RO (2023).  Interactions of IDO and the Kynurenine Pathway with Cell Transduction Systems and Metabolism at the Inflammation–Cancer Interface. Cancers 15,  IS:11,  doi:10.3390/cancers15112895.447.

Stone, TW, Williams RO (2024)  Tryptophan metabolism as a ‘reflex’ feature of neuroimmune communication: Sensor and effector functions for the indoleamine‐2, 3‐dioxygenase kynurenine pathway. J Neurochem.  in press early view:  doi: 10.1111/jnc.16015.

Current Research Interests

The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism

In detail…

Although the amino acid tryptophan is often considered primarily for its role as the precursor of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT; serotonin), it is also oxidised to kynurenine which can then be transaminated to kynurenic acid or further oxidised to quinolinic acid (see figure 1 for a summary of the pathway).

The biochemistry of tryptophan metabolism was studied widely in the period up to 1970 because of the medical importance of the product nicotinamide (niacin; vitamin B3). The concept that the other metabolites along the pathway from tryptophan to nicotinamide had independent, highly specific effects in the brain was initiated by our discovery that quinolinic acid was able to activate, selectively, NMDA-sensitive receptors for glutamate, producing excitation of neurons in the cerebral cortex when applied by microiontophoresis to individual cells [Stone & Perkins, 1981]. It was then discovered that kynurenic acid was an antagonist at glutamate receptor [Perkins & Stone, 1982].

Within a few years both compounds became routine experimental tools for studying glutamate-mediated neurotransmission, and the field of kynurenine pathway research has now expanded dramatically into all fields of biology and medicine.

Up to the present time, Professor Stone’s research group has continued to study basic aspects of the kynurenine pathway as well as links with medical conditions. This and related work in other laboratories has implicated the kynurenines in a range of brain disorders including stroke, Huntington’s disease, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive problems after major surgery, cerebral malaria and trypanosomiasis. His present primary interest concerns the role of the kynurenine pathway in brain development and the relationship between effects of the kynurenines on the nervous system and the immune system.

Figure 1. Main components of the kynurenine pathway

In detail…

Professor Stone is currently also continuing to explore the role of serine proteases in the biology of the central nervous system, developing recent work on the potential transduction processes underlying the long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic activity and modulation of neuronal excitability which they produce in the hippocampus.

Understanding the mechanisms of these effects led to the discovery that the serine proteases chymotrypsin and subtilisin suppress the expression of tumour suppressors proteins such as DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Cancer), neogenin and unc-5. Chymotrypsin is produced by the gut as a digestive enzyme but it is also absorbed in the bloodstream, giving it access to all organs and tissues.

Subtilisin is a bacterial enzyme (secreted by Bacillus subtilis and other species) which is widely present in the environment, especially the soil. It is also added to meat and other food products to make them more tender and tasty. The bacteria are used in probiotics given to farm animals to increase their rate of growth and muscle mass. This raises the possibility of subtilisin entering the human food chain, gaining access to most organs and tissues and possibly contributing to the potential link between environment, diet, obesity and cancer.

The Role of Serine Proteases in cell interactions and cancer

The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism

In detail…

Although the amino acid tryptophan is often considered primarily for its role as the precursor of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT; serotonin), it is also oxidised to kynurenine which can then be transaminated to kynurenic acid or further oxidised to quinolinic acid (see figure 1 for a summary of the pathway and Figure 2 for a more complete version).

The biochemistry of tryptophan metabolism was studied widely in the period up to 1970 because of the medical importance of the product nicotinamide (niacin; vitamin B3). The concept that the other metabolites along the pathway from tryptophan to nicotinamide had independent, highly specific effects in the brain was initiated by our discovery that quinolinic acid was able to activate, selectively, NMDA-sensitive receptors for glutamate, producing excitation of neurons in the cerebral cortex when applied by microiontophoresis to individual cells [Stone & Perkins, 1981]. It was then discovered that kynurenic acid was an antagonist at glutamate receptor [Perkins & Stone, 1982].

Within a few years both compounds became routine experimental tools for studying glutamate-mediated neurotransmission, and the field of kynurenine pathway research has now expanded dramatically into all fields of biology.

Up to the present time, Professor Stone’s research group has continued to study basic aspects of the kynurenine pathway as well as links with medical conditions. This and related work in other laboratories has implicated the kynurenines in a range of brain disorders including stroke, Huntington’s disease, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive problems after major surgery, cerebral malaria and trypanosomiasis. His present primary interest concerns the role of the kynurenine pathway in brain development and the relationship between effects of the kynurenines on the nervous system and the immune system.

Figure 1. Main components of the kynurenine pathway

The Role of Serine Proteases in cell interactions and cancer

In detail…

Professor Stone is currently also continuing to explore the role of serine proteases in the biology of the central nervous system, developing recent work on the potential transduction processes underlying the long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic activity and modulation of neuronal excitability which they produce in the hippocampus.

Understanding the mechanisms of these effects led to the discovery that the serine proteases chymotrypsin and subtilisin suppress the expression of tumour suppressors proteins such as DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Cancer), neogenin and unc-5. (Forrest CM et al., 2016; Stone & Darlington, 2017). Chymotrypsin is produced by the gut as a digestive enzyme but it is also absorbed in the bloodstream, giving it access to all organs and tissues.

Subtilisin is a bacterial enzyme (secreted by Bacillus subtilis and other species) which is widely present in the environment, especially the soil. It is also added to meat and other food products to make them more tender and tasty. The bacteria are used in probiotics given to farm animals to increase their rate of growth and muscle mass. This raises the possibility of subtilisin entering the human food chain, gaining access to most organs and tissues and possibly contributing to the potential link between environment, diet, obesity and cancer.